• Marzano’s Nine Essential Instructional Strategies
    1. Identifying Similarities and Differences: helps students understand more complex problems by analyzing them in a simpler way
    a. Use Venn diagrams or charts to compare and classify items.
    b. Engage students in comparing, classifying, and creating metaphors and analogies.
    2. Summarizing and Note-Taking: promotes comprehension because students have to analyze what is important and what is not important and put it in their own words
    a. Provide a set of rules for asking students to summarize a literary selection, a movie clip, a section of a textbook, etc.
    b. Provide a basic outline for note-taking, having students fill in pertinent information
    3. Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition: showing the connection between effort and achievement helps students helps them see the importance of effort and allows them to change their beliefs to emphasize it more. Note that recognition is more effective if it is contingent on achieving some specified standard.
    a. Share stories about people who succeeded by not giving up.
    b. Find ways to personalize recognition. Give awards for individual accomplishments.
    c. "Pause, Prompt, Praise."
    If a student is struggling, pause to discuss the problem, then prompt with specific suggestions to help her improve. If the student's performance improves as a result, offer praise.
    4. Homework and Practice: provides opportunities to extend learning outside the classroom, but should be assigned based on relevant grade level. All homework should have a purpose and that purpose should be readily evident to the students. Additionally, feedback should be given for all homework assignments.
    a. Establish a homework policy with a specific schedule and time parameters.
    b. Vary feedback methods to maximize its effectiveness.
    c. Focus practice and homework on difficult concepts.
    5. Nonlinguistic Representations: has recently been proven to stimulate and increase brain activity.
    a. Incorporate words and images using symbols to represent relationships.
    b. Use physical models and physical movement to represent information.
    6. Cooperative Learning: has been proven to have a positive impact on overall learning. Note: groups should be small enough to be effective and the strategy should be used in a systematic and consistent manner.
    a. Group students according to factors such as common interests or experiences.
    b. Vary group sizes and mixes. c. Focus on positive interdependence, social skills, face-to-face interaction, and individual and group accountability.
    7. Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback: provide students with a direction. Objectives should not be too specific and should be adaptable to students’ individual objectives. There is no such thing as too much positive feedback, however, the method in which you give that feedback should be varied.
    a. Set a core goal for a unit, and then encourage students to personalize that goal by identifying areas of interest to them. Questions like "I want to know" and "I want to know more about . . ." get students thinking about their interests and actively involved in the goal-setting process.
    b. Use contracts to outline the specific goals that students must attain and the grade they will receive if they meet those goals.
    c. Make sure feedback is corrective in nature; tell students how they did in relation to specific levels of knowledge. Rubrics are a great way to do this.
    8. Generating and Testing Hypotheses: it’s not just for science class! Research shows that a deductive approach works best, but both inductive and deductive reasoning can help students understand and relate to the material.
    a. Ask students to predict what would happen if an aspect of a familiar system, such as the government or transportation, were changed. b. Ask students to build something using limited resources. This task generates questions and hypotheses about what may or may not work.
    9. Cues, Questions, and Advanced Organizers: helps students use what they already know to enhance what they are about to learn. These are usually most effective when used before a specific lesson.
    a. Pause briefly after asking a question to give students time to answer with more depth.
    b. Vary the style of advance organizer used: Tell a story, skim a text, or create a graphic image. There are many ways to expose students to information before they "learn" it.
    Information taken from http://www.middleweb.com/MWLresources/marzchat1.html
    Other interesting resources for information concerning Marzano’s Nine Instructional Strategies:
    • http://staff.fcps.net/DCombs/Marzano%20Brain%20Research.htm
    • http://ncs.district.googlepages.com/integratingtechnologywithmarzano'sninein
    • http://classroom.leanderisd.org/webs/marzano/home.htm
    • http://www.mapthemind.com/research/pdf/marzano9.pdf