When a student is referred, a speech-language screening is conducted and if further assessment is needed, paperwork is completed as required by Federal and State laws. If eligible for speech-language services an IEP (individualized education plan) will be written to address the speech disorder. Goals will be put in place and worked on during speech-language therapy class. Therapy helps speech become intelligible or easy to understand by familiar and unfamiliar listeners. Speech-language Progress Reports will be sent home once a quarter with report cards. A review of each child's IEP goals and objectives is scheduled once a year. Below are some common terms used in the field of school-based speech-language pathology:ARTICULATION: The child's ability to say sounds in words, sentences and conversation.LANGUAGE: Receptive Language - The child's ability to understand what is being said to him/her, including vocabulary/concepts and following directions. Expressive Language - This is the child's ability to communicate effectively including sentence length/structure/grammar and pragmatics/social communication skills, also includes non-verbal communication forms, i.e. gestures, facial expressions and body language.
AUDITORY PROCESSING: Auditory processing involves what the child does with what he/she hears. For example, the ability to process and understand individual sounds, discriminate them as being separate entities, blend them together to form words, break words apart, sequence sounds/words, remember what is being heard, localize auditory information, etc. Auditory processing is related to all areas of language, reasoning, reading and spelling.
HEARING: A hearing screening is given to determine the need for further medical or audiological testing.
READING : The child's ability to decode or sound out the words correctly and comprehend what is being read.
VOICE: The quality and loudness of a child's voice. May be hoarse, harsh, breathy, too loud/soft, hyper/hypo nasal, or have the wrong pitch for age/sex.
FLUENCY: The child's ability to speak smoothly without undue hesitations, tension of the mouth, prolongations of sounds, or repetitions of sounds/words/phrases.
ORAL-MOTOR: The child's ability to use parts of the mouth to perform functions of speaking or eating.
SPEECH IMPAIRED: A communication disorder such as stuttering or disfluent speech, impaired articulation, language impairment or voice impairment. Speech impairment does not include the following: grammatical errors due to learning English as a second language, dialectical patterns resulting from a student's use of nonstandard English, academic difficulties not directly related to receptive or expressive language deficits, behavioral problems, or speech/language development commensurate or equal with the student's general cognitive abilities or intellectual level.
PHONOLOGY: The sound system of language including speech sounds, speech patterns and rules that applies to those sounds.
PHONEMIC AWARENESS: The stages of phonological development toward deep phonemic awareness can be defined as: 1. Recognition that sentences are made up of words. 2. Recognition that words can rhyme. 3. Recognition that words can be broken down into syllables. 4. Recognition that words can be broken down into onsets and rimes. 5. Recognition that words can begin with the same sound. 6. Recognition that words can end with the same sound. 7. Recognition that words can have the same medial sound(s). 8. Recognition that words can be broken down into individual phonemes. 9. Recognition that sounds can be deleted from words to make new words. 10. Ability to blend sounds to make words. 11. Ability to segment words into constituent sounds.
PHONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT: The gradual process of acquiring adult speech patterns is called phonological development.
PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSES: All children make predictable pronunciation errors (not really 'errors' at all, when you stop to think about it) when they are learning to talk like adults. These 'errors' are called phonological processes, or phonological deviations. A child's speech becomes "disordered" when they do not outgrow these phonological deviations.