• 1) Language skills:   Content, Form and USE of our communication.

    Expressive Language- What we say/use

    Receptive Language- What we understand

    • Using immature grammatical structures (pronouns and verbs)
    • Answering & Asking questions
    • Understanding/using basic concepts
    • Following directions
    • Using limited language to describe events/activities (limited oral vocabulary)

    2) Articulation & Phonological Processes:   Articulation is the child's ability to say specific sounds in isolation, syllables, words, phrases, sentences, and in conversation. Developmental Ages for Sound Mastery articulation norms are taken from the WSFC Speech Articulation Guidelines from September 2015.

    Age 3    

    Age 4    

    Age 5    

    Age 6  

    Age 7

    P & B

    K & G



     Harder blends

    T & D

    F & V



    M & N





    H & W







    R & R-blends




    Vocalic R


    Updated Chart 2015 by WSFCS


    Phonological Processes: When children are learning to talk they make predictable articulation errors. These errors are called phonological errors and typically disappear when the child is 3 years old.  Examples include but are not limited to: 1) Fronting : substituting all sounds made in the back of the mouth like "k" and "g" for those in the front of the mouth like "t" and "d" (saying "tut" for "cut" or "dum" for "gum"). 2) Final Consonant Deletion: Leaving off the final sound in a word production (saying "hou" for "house" or "ca" for "car") 3) Cluster Reduction:  some words start with two consonants, such as spill or bring.  (saying "pill" for spill or "bing" for bring) 

    3) Voice:  A voice disorder may be present if the child presents differences in any of the following areas:

    • Pitch (range, inflection, appropriateness)
    • Intensity (loudness)
    • Quality (breathiness, hoarseness, harshness) Please consult the school SLP if the child's voice has a consistent unusual quality

    4) Fluency (stuttering):  Although many children exhibit disfluencies during their preschool years, these become less evident as they mature. Warning Signs-to be aware of for possible Speech referral

    • Frequent sound and syllable repetition
    • Frequent prolongations of sounds
    • Tension and struggle behavior while saying specific words
    • Avoidance of or delay in using certain words
    • Unusual sound or word usage (interjections)