1. A calorie is a unit of energy.
    2. Saturated fat is solid at room temp.
    3. Cholesterol is a fatty, waxy substance manufactured by the liver.
    4. Bulimia is the most recent eating disorder.  It is a "binge eating" affair that results in vomiting, using laxitives and eventually death.
    5. Anorexia Nervosa is an eating disorder where you starve yourselve.  It effects your nervous system and usually results in heart attack.
    6. Hypertension is called high blood pressure.
    7. Sodium Chloride is another name for salt.
    8. LDL stands for low density lipoprotein. It is the bad cholesterol.
    HDL stands for high density lipoprotein. It is the good cholesterol.
    10. Ways to lower cholesterol: exercise, proper diet, get cholesterol test and relieve stress.
    11. 3 types of fat: saturated, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated.
    12. Monounsaturated is the best type of fat and saturated is the worse.
    13. Four basic food groups are: breads/grains, fruits/veg., meats/proteins, dairy.
    14. Triglycerides are bad fats also.
    15. 9 calories equal 1 gr. of fat.
    16. 5 calories equal 1 gr. of carbs.
    17. To find % of milk, multiply the percentage of fat by 2.  Ex.: 2% = 4 gr of fat.
    18. Empty calories are foods without any nutrional value.
    19. A normal blood pressure reading is: 120/80. Children have lower readings.
    20. Botulism and salmonella are two type of food poisoning.  Botulism comes from dents/openings in cans, and salmonella comes from foods such as eggs and chicken.
    21. Canola and olive oil are the two best cooking oils.
    22. Most people cannot lose weight in specific areas alone.  They need to exercise in the proper places of the body.
    23. Children develop cholesterol and should be checked starting between ages of 9-11.
    *Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) causes mental retardation in babies when mother drinks during pregnancy.
    *20 % of alcohol is absorbed by stomach and the rest goes to the other organs.
    *Alcohol makes blood vessels rise to the surface. Other organs become cold (hypo)
    *Liver converts alcohol into water (H20) and carbon dioxide(co2). That is called oxidation.
    *Ethyl, Ethanol is drinking alcohol.  Isopropyl alcohol is rubbing alcohol for cuts/abrasions.
    *.08 is legally drunk in NC. BAL is blood alcohol level. How drunk a person gets depends on three main things: weight, quantity and eating food prior to drinking.
    *Drinking causes dehydration.
    *50% of drownings/arrest are alcohol related.
    *3 C's are: cause, control and cure.
    *Fermentation is the action of yeast on sugars.
    *Vodka is made from potatoes which produce sugars.

    Muscular System
    *650 muscles in normal human body.  Some books say around 600, but actually there are around 650.
    *Two groups of muscles: Voluntary/Involunary.  Voluntary-you control / Inv.- you don't control.
    *Two functions of MS: to cause movement / to hold the body upright.
    *How is the body organized in four words? cells-tissues-organs-systems.
    *3 types of muscles: smooth-found in eyelids and some internal organs, cardiac-involuntary and found in heart, and striated-also called skeletal muscles because they are attached to your bones.
    *4 types of tissue: epithelial-found on outer skin and some internal organs, nervous-carries messages throughout body,  muscle-causes movement,  connective-connects body parts.
    *4 types of connective tissue: joint-where bones connect,  cartilage-smooth, flexible material covering ends of bones to keep them from grinding,  tendons-tough cords that connect muscle to bone,  ligaments-strong band of tissue connecting most bone to bone.
    *In order for any bone to move, two or more muscles must contract (flexor) and relax (extensor).
    anterior-front view,  posterior-back view,  medial-inside or middle,  lateral-outside view,  proximal-beginning of,  distal-ends of,  oxidation-cells using oxygen to burn energy,  atrophy-to waste away,  growth plate-layer of cells that divide in the bones.
    trapezius-neck,  deltoids-shoulder,  pectoralis major-chest,  abdomen-stomach,  latissimus dorsi-back,  gluteus maximus-butt ,  biceps-front of upper arm,  triceps-back of upper arm,  hamstrings-back of thigh, quadriceps-front of thigh.
    hinge-knee, elbow, fingers, toes.  function is up and down.
    fixed-skull, coccyx.  they don't move.
    ball and socket-shoulder and hip.  they have full range of motion.
    pivot-neck and forearm.  they rotate.
    gliding-ankle and wrist.  they twist.
    1. anterior- front view
    2. posterior- back
    3. medial- inside
    4. lateral- outside
    5. proximal- beginning
    6. distal- ends
    7. oxidation- cells using oxygen for energy
    8. atrophy- to waste away (tendons,tissues, bones, ect.)
    9. growth plate- layer of cells in bones that divide
    1. traps- neck
    2. delts- shoulder
    3. pecs- chest
    4. abs- stomach
    5. lats- back
    6. gluteus maximus- (largest muscle in body)
    7. hamstrings- back of thigh
    8. quad- front of thigh
    9. biceps- front of upper arm
    10. triceps-- back of upper arm
    1. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome-(FAS)-causes mental retardation in pregnant women.
    2. 20 % of alcohol is absorbed in the stomach
    3. Alcohol makes blood vessels rise to the surface.  This leaves other internal organs cold.
    4. Liver converts alcohol to H20 (water) and C02(carbon dioxide) and this process is called oxidation.
    5. Ethyl, ethanol are components of alcohol.
    6. Isopropyl is rubbing alcohol for cuts.
    7. Legally drunk in NC is .08.  BAL (blood alcohol level) depends on weight, food, quantity and how fast it is drank.
    8. Alcohol takes 1 hour to be absorbed by the liver.
    9. Heavy drinking causes dehydration.
    10. Vodka is made from potatoes for the sugar.
    11. 50 % of drownings/arrests are alcohol related.
    12. First stage of drinking is called social drinking.
    13. Fermentation is the action of yeast on sugars.
    14. 3 c's are cause, control and cure.
    *normal resting heartrate is 72.
    *carotid artery in the neck is the most reliable pulse in body.
    *220 is the number you use to begin finding maximum/minimum heartrate.  Then you subtract your age from 220.  Multiply that number by .70 to find minimum number.  Multiply number you got from subtraction by .85 to find maximum heart rate.
    *femoral pulse is also a pressure point found in groin area.
    *brachial pulse is located inside of upper arm.  It is also a pressure point.
    *radial pulse is in the wrist.
    cardio pulmonary endurance,  flexibility,  body fat,  muscle strength,  muscle endurance.
    *aerobic exercise is using oxygen while exercising.
    check situation
    yell again or send for help if someone arrives
    tap and shout
    *emergency medical service is the EMS.
    *cardio pulmonary resuscitation is CPR.
    *A normal person can only go 6 minutes without oxygen.
    *When performing rescue breathing on an adult, you would give one breath every five seconds.
    *Brachial pulse is where you check an infant.
    *A stands for airway.  When checking for airway, you use the head tilt / chin lift method.
    *B stands for breathing.  You look, listen and feel when checking for breathing.
    Then you give victim two full breaths.
    *C stands for circulation.  You check pulse for ten seconds when checking for circulation.
    *You tap and shout on an adults shoulder / tap and shout on an infant's hands and feet.
    *An adult is said to be 90 lbs. or more and over ten years old.
    *Arteries are cut when severe bleeding occurs.  Blood spurts from heartbeat.
    *First, you apply bandage directly over cut and elevate body part above heart.  If blood comes through first bandage, add another, and do not remove first bandage.
    *If blood comes through second bandage, wrap a pressure bandage over the two bandages and tie directly over cut.
    *Then apply pressure on one of your two pressure points (brachial-upper arm / femoral-upper thigh) til the blood just oozes instead of spurts.
    7th/8th grade AIDS Notes
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
    4 ways HIV can be transmitted: sex, needles, mother to child and blood transfusion/accidents.
    Where in the body is HIV present? blood, semen, vaginal secretion and breast milk.
    How many years does it take the average person with HIV to come down with AIDS? 8-12 yrs.
    Opportunistic Infections-the cancers that actually kill people with AIDS.
    Symptoms of AIDS: diarrhea, flulike symptoms, yeast infections, vomit, nausea, high temperature,sweating high fever, cancers.
    Kaposi's Sarcoma-skin cancer that 62% of AIDS patients develop.
    Air kills the virus in the blood.
    An infected person with HIV can live longer than their victim.
    7th grade First Aid Notes
    *ligaments- strong bands of tissue that connect most bone to bone.
    *tendons-tough cords that connect muscle to bone.
    *strains-an injury to either a muscle or a tendon. Can be overstretch of muscle/tendon, or it can result in a partial or complete tear.
    *sprains-when ligaments are stretched or a tear occurs of the tissue.
    *nose bleeds-tilt head forward and pinch nostrils for at least five minutes.
    *shock-traumatic, anaphylactic and physical shock.
    *Symptoms of shock: pupils dilated, pale skin, rapid -shallow breathing, agitated, nauseated.
    *How to treat shock: 1) keep quiet and calm. 2)lay victim down and elevate legs. 3)keep temperature regulated.
    Suicide notes
    Suicide is third leading cause of death among people between ages 10-24.
    Over 5,000 young people die each year from suicide between ages of 10-24.
    Every two hours, a young person dies of suicide in US.
    Suicide is always preventable.
    People who are contemplating suicide almost always tell somenone beforehand.
    You should always tell someone if someone confided in you that they are thinking about committing suicide.