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     Immune Project handout (given to each student)

    Immune System Project Requirements and Options

    All projects must include the following:

                    Characters :  Choose one of the kinds of pathogens that have invaded the body

    Include each of the three phagocytes and all lymphocytes (use notes on page 12 in your science notebook)

                Process :  Show how a pathogen invades the body and infects healthy cells

                                Show how immune system cells search the bloodstream looking for pathogens

                               Show how immune system cells identify the specific pathogen

                               Show how immune system cells prepare for an attack on the pathogen

                               Show how immune system cells defeat a pathogen

       Show how the immune system remains prepared if that pathogen were to every invade the body again


    Project Options

    For Individuals :

    -         Comic:  Must include at least 18 boxes for the comic.  Must be quality drawing and neat presentation

    -         Story:  Should be well written with at least 450 words

    -         Creaza:  Must have at least 14 scenes

    -         Flipbook:  Must have at least 14 pages

    -         Powerpoint:  Must have at least 14 slides




    For Groups of 2 :

    -         Comic:  Must include at least 24 boxes for the comic.  Must be quality drawing and neat presentation

    -         Story:  Should be well written with at least 700 words

    -         Creaza:  Must have at least 18 scenes

    -         Flipbook:  Must have at least 18 pages

    -         Song:  Must have at least 8 verses and 1 chorus


    For Groups of 3 or 4 :

    -         Play/Skit:  Must include a script, props, all characters (have to play more than one character each) and should last between 2 – 5 minutes

    -         Video:  Must be recorded outside of school and include a script, props, all characters (have to play more than one character each) and should last between 2 – 5 minutes

    -         Game Show:  Put on a game show with at least 12 questions that show the process of fighting off pathogens, written out rules and props

    Sample of required parts
    Immune System Characters
    The Bad Guys :   Pathogens
     Bacteria *     Virus *     Protists *     Fungi
    The Good Guys  :   Phagocytes and Lymphocytes
     Granulocytes *     Macrophages *     Dendritic Cells
     Helper T Cells *     Suppressor T Cells *     Killer T Cells
     Plasma B Cells *     Memory B Cells
    How Pathogens Attack Healthy Cells 
    A pathogen may have extensions coming off its body (like spikes), called antigens.  Each 
    pathogen has unique antigens (like a fingerprint).  A pathogen can use their antigen to pierce 
    into the cell membrane of a healthy cell and then crawl inside to invade the cell.
    How Immune System Cells Respond to a Pathogen Attack 
    The phagocytes and lymphocytes are continuously floating through the circulatory 
    system prepared for battle with any invading pathogens.  Phagocytes eat cells that are dead, 
    injured, or look like they will cause harm.  If a phagocyte eats a pathogen, it will remove the 
    antigen from the pathogen which will help to identify the specific pathogen.  The phagocyte will 
    then locate helper T cells and give them the antigen.  Helper T Cells will become activated and 
    some will go out to find plasma B cells, while other helper T cells will change into suppressor T 
    cells and begin to attack the pathogen.  When the helper T cells find the plasma B cells, they 
    pass on the antigen (unique identifier of the pathogen) and the plasma B cells will then begin to 
    make antibodies (weapons against pathogens).  The antibodies can be used by killer T cells to 
    destroy the pathogen.  Antibodies attach to the antigens of the pathogens and prevent it from 
    invading any new healthy cells.  If a pathogen can’t invade a new healthy cell, then it will lose 
    energy and eventually die.  Once dead, the pathogen will be eaten by the phagocytes cleaning 
    out the blood.  The killer T cells then become memory cells and store the information about 
    which antibody worked against that pathogen so that the next time it is encountered in the 
    body it will be defeated quickly and easily.
    Descriptions of Roles for Phagocytes and Lymphocytes
    All Phagocytes :  Phagocytes are a type of immune cell specialized in finding and “eating” 
    invading pathogens and dead or injured body cells.
    Granulocytes :  The granulocytes often take the first stand during an infection.  They attack any 
    invaders in large numbers, and "eat" until they die.
    Macrophages : The macrophages ("big eaters") are slower to respond to invaders than the 
    granulocytes, but they are larger, live longer, and have far greater capacities.
    Dendritic Cells : The dendritic cells are "eater" cells and devour intruders, like the granulocytes 
    and the macrophages.  However, they are also capable of filtering body fluids to clear them of 
    foreign organisms and particles.
    All Lymphocytes : On the surface of each lymphatic cell are receptors that enable them to 
    recognize foreign substances. These receptors are very specialized - each can match only one 
    Helper T Cells : Their primary task is to activate B cells and killer T cells. However, the helper T 
    cells themselves must be activated by a phagocyte.
    Suppressor T Cells :  Suppressor T Cells begin using generic antibodies to slow the reproduction 
    of an invading pathogen.  They prevent the immune system from going into overdrive and 
    destroying normal, healthy tissue.
    Killer T Cells :  The killer T cell is specialized in attacking cells of the body infected by viruses and 
    bacteria.  The killer T cell has receptors that are used to search each cell that it meets. If a cell is 
    infected, it is swiftly killed.
    Plasma B Cells :  The plasma B cell is specialized in producing a specific protein, called an 
    antibody, that will respond to the same antigen that matched the B cell receptor. Antibodies 
    are released from the plasma cell so that they can seek out intruders and help destroy them.
    Memory B Cells :  The Memory Cells have a prolonged life span and can thereby "remember" 
    specific intruders.  The second time an intruder tries to invade the body, B memory cells help 
    the immune system to activate much faster.  The invaders are wiped out before the infected 
    human feels any symptoms. The body has achieved immunity against the invader.
    Grading rubric for Immune Project
    Immune System Project Name(s) :
    Option Chosen:
    Characters                                             Processes
    Pathogen                                               Pathogen invades the body
    Granulocyte                                          Cells search the bloodstream
    Macrophage                                          Cells identify the pathogen
    Dendritic Cells                                      Cells prepare for an attack
    Helper T Cells                                      Cells defeat the pathogen
    Killer T Cells                                        Remain prepared for another attack
    Suppressor T Cells                               Quality of Work :
    Plasma B Cells                                     Score :
    Memory B Cells