• Additional Information for Conducting the FBA

    Before completing the FBA, the team is responsible for gathering information to help determine the function of the student's behavior.  Document all sources that are used and attach to the FBA.
    • Records Review - A record review should be completed during the early planning of the FBA.  This involves looking at existing documents for information that could help determine the function(s) of the behavior.  This Record Review Guide serves as a roadmap for information that is typically contained in a student's cumulative record and how that information may be pertinent to the FBA process.
    • Interviews - Interviews should be conducted with teachers, support staff, related service staff, parents/family members, and other relevant adults that work with or know the student well.  An interview should also be conducted with the student who is exhibiting the behavior.  The purpose of interviewing is to collect information about events that influence the problem.  It helps to identify the settings, events and activities that can be targeted through direct observation.  This is an opportunity to collect information that may be helpful in developing an intervention plan for the student (e.g., learning style, strengths, interests, prior success, etc.).
    Teacher/Staff Interviews Parent Interviews Student Interviews
    Teacher Interview 1 Parent Interview 1 Student Interview 1
    Teacher Interview 2 Parent Interview 2 Student Interview 2
        Student Interview 3
    • Functional Assessment Observation - Functional Assessment Observations are the most powerful tools in a school-based FBA.  They consist of actually observing the problem behavior and describing the conditions that surround the behavior.  Antecedent-Behavior-Consequence (ABC) Analysis and Scatterplot are the two most common functional assessment observations methods.
        • ABC Analysis - This type of assessment is done by observing the student and recording anecdotal information over the course of several observation periods.  As the problem behavior occurs, the observer records events that occurred right before the behavior (antecedents) and events that occurred just after the behavior (consequences).  The information in an ABC Analysis helps identify events that are maintaining the challenging behavior, appropriate behaviors that are not reinforced, social skills that need to be learned, and environmental conditions that need modification.
              • More information on ABC Analysis, including data forms, can be found by clicking here
        • Scatterplot - A scatterplot is a chart or grid on which an observer records single events (e.g., number of times out of seat) or a series of events (e.g., teacher requests and student response) that occur within a given context (e.g., during teacher-led reading instruction, at lunch, on the playground).  It provides a pattern of analysis for determining which situations are associated with the problem behavior. The purpose is to discover if the problem behavior correlates with time of day, a particular physical setting, the presence of a particular person, a certain activity, or some combination of these factors.
              • More in information on Scatterplots, including data forms, can be found by clicking here

    • Behavior Questionnaires and Checklists - Behavior questionnaires are useful for identifying behavior of concern, skill deficits, and environmental variables that may trigger or maintain the problem behavior.  It can also provide useful information about the function of the behavior.  They can be given to multiple raters and compared for differences or similarities in results.  The following should be considered when using a behavior questionnaire: 1) they should always be supplemented with direct observations, 2) they can reflect perceptions about students which could account for differences between raters, and 3) care should be taken so that information about the student is not skewed toward the negative.

    Problem Behavior Questionnaire

    Social Emotional Checklist


    • Reinforcer Surveys - A reinforcer is something that is given after the occurrence of behavior that results in an increase in the behavior.  In other words, reinforcers should only be delivered upon the occurrence of appropriate behavior.  They should never be used as a bribe to get a student to behavior appropriately.  They are only delivered if the student already exhibited an appropriate behavior.  During the FBA, it is very important that the team determine reinforcers that can be used to motivate the student to engage in the replacement and other appropriate behaviors.  If the student lacks intrinsic motivation (seeing the personal value of performing a behavior), it may be necessary to initially reinforce the behavior with some type of extrinsic rewards, such as activities, tokens, social interaction or tangible.  In doing so, we must remember to fade out the extrinsic rewards, meaning we will need to gradually replace it with more naturally occurring rewards, such has good grades, approval from others, or the pleasure that comes from success.  Of course, fading will only be a consideration once the student has shown an increased ability and willingness to engage in the appropriate, desired behavior.  In order to accomplish this fading process, the extrinsic rewards will need to be paired with the intrinsic reward.  The purpose of pairing the extrinsic with the intrinsic is to teach the student that the behavior is a positive behavior so that the intrinsic motivation will become just as valuable as the extrinsic.

    Student Reinforcement Survey

    Potential Reinforcer Survey



Last Modified on July 26, 2015